In the figure, we summarized an in-house protocol for the establishment of patient-derived cancer organoids. After patient consent is obtained, tumor tissue resection is taken and transferred to ORGANO-ID Lab. After mechanical and enzymatic tissue dissociation, the collected cells are embedded and/or encapsulated into matrigel or BME to form PDCO and grown in a specific medium for 3-4 weeks. Then each PDCO lines has individually characterized by whole exome sequencing (WES) in order to define similarity to mutational spectra of original tumor. Then, PDCOs are used to predict to response to anti cancer drugs.